Selected Articles

"Economics of 'essential use exemptions' for metered-dose inhalers under the Montreal Protocol" (with Catherine S. Norman) Journal of Environmental Management 85, 2007

Abstract

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer has led to rapid reductions in the use of ozone-depleting substances worldwide. However, the Protocol provides for ‘‘essential use exemptions’’ (EUEs) if there are no ‘‘technically and economically feasible’’ alternatives....

"Distribution of Emissions Allowances as an Opportunity" Climate Policy 7, 2007

Abstract

Much of the debate on climate policy in the USA focuses on the gain or loss to the macroeconomy of alternative policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the economy is made up of multiple individuals, not a single representative agent. This article reports the results of alternative ways of distributing emissions allocations across citizens. Macroeconomic...

"The Montreal Protocol at 20: Ongoing Opportunities for Integration with Climate Protection" (with Catherine S. Norman and Lin Fan) Global Environmental Change 18, 2008

Abstract

The Montreal Protocol, implemented because of the risks posed by stratospheric ozone depletion, has successfully brought about international cooperation to address a serious global environmental hazard. We show how flexibility in destruction offsets could improve efficiency and propose a simple methodology to jointly...

"The political economy of global carbon emissions reductions" Ecological Economics, 68(3) January 2009

Abstract

The discussion about what reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are required and how the emissions rights might be distributed globally has fostered the belief that there is a fundamental conflict between the rich nations of the “North” and the poor but populous nations of the “South.” The argument is that grandfathering the rights will...

"Limitations of integrated assessment models of climate change" (with Frank Ackerman, Richard B. Howarth, and Kristin Sheeran) Climatic Change, 95(3-4); August 2009

Abstract

The integrated assessment models (IAMs) that economists use to analyze the expected costs and benefits of climate policies frequently suggest that the “optimal” policy is to go slowly and to do relatively little in the near term to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We trace this...

"Two Hidden Sources of Productivity Growth in American Agriculture, 1860-1930" (with William N. Parker) Agricultural History 56, October 1982, pp. 648-62

Initial paragraph

Sustained productivity growth in modern agriculture depends largely upon two complex social processes of learning. In genetic and biochem- ical technology, scientists must learn how to adjust plant varieties and animal breeds to the various and changing conditions of the natural environment....

"Modeling Technological Change in Energy Demand Forecasting: A Generalized Approach" (with John A. "Skip" Laitner) Technological Forecasting and Social Change 55, 1997

Abstract

Conventional economic modeling of energy demand has characterized technological choice as an investment decision driven primarily by the relationship between capital costs and operating costs. Yet the implementation of this approach has tended to yield unrealistically high estimates of the implicit discount rate governing...

"Accumulation and Discrimination in the Postbellum South" Explorations in Economic History 16, 1979

Abstract

Economic inequality between blacks and whites in the postbellum South can be attributed to two factors: racial discrimination and the absence of any redistribution of tangible wealth to accompany emancipation. This paper shows that the freedmen's initial lack of property was the most important cause of race-related income differences. The initial wealth gap between...